A cubic Bézier curve has a useful representation in a matrix form. This is a non-standard representation but extremely valuable if we can multiply matrices quickly. The matrix which we develop, when examined closely, is uniquely defined by the cubic Bernstein polynomials. We can use this form to develop ``subdivision matrices'' that allow us to use matrix multiplication to generate different Bézier control polygons for the cubic curve.
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Developing the Matrix Equation
A cubic Bézier Curve can be written in a matrix form by expanding the analytic definition of the curve into its Bernstein polynomial coefficients, and then writing these coefficients in a matrix form using the polynomial power basis. That is,
Utilizing equipment that is designed for fast matrix calculations, this formulation can be used to quickly calculate points on the curve.
Subdivision Using the Matrix Form
Suppose we wish to generate the control polygon for the portion of the curve where ranges between 0 and - subdivide the curve at the point . This can be done by defining a new curve which is equal to . Clearly this new curve is a cubic polynomial, and traces out the desired portion of as ranges between 0 and . We can calculate the Bézier control polygon for by using the matrix form of the curve .
In the same way, we can obtain the Bézier control polygon for the second half of the curve - the portion where ranges between and . If we call this new curve , then
Generating a Sequence of Bézier Control Polygons.
Using matrix calculations similar to those above, we can generate an iterative scheme to generate a sequence of points on the curve. To do this, we need one additional matrix. If we consider the portion of the cubic curve where ranges between and , We generate the Bézier control points of by reparameterization of the original curve - namely by replacing by - to obtain
Now, using a combination of , and , we can produce Bézier control polygons along the curve similar to methods developed with divided differences. To see what I mean here, first notice that
Extending this, if we apply
We have developed a matrix form for the cubic Bézier curve. Using reparameterization, we then developed matrices which enabled us to produce Bézier control polygons for sections of the curve, and to move from one Bézier control polygon to an adjacent for on the curve. These operations are extremely useful when utilizing hardware with geometry engines that multiply matrices rapidly.